Programming Blog

Exploration of Big Data, Machine Learning, Natural Language Processing, and other fun problems.

Avoid Deadlocks when Reading StandardOutput from a Process in C#

Let's start with some C# code that kicks off a new Process like this:

System.Diagnostics.Process p = System.Diagnostics.Process.Start(info);

The process will do some Console.Write, and we wan't to capture that. In order to capture the child Process' output, we'll read StandardOutput. That will often work great... until it doesn't.

This can cause deadlocks where your parent process is stuck waiting due to a variety of scenarios.

  1. The child process never exits
  2. The child process writes so much data that it needs to be consumed with a stream pattern.

A good pattern is to set up event handlers on OutputDataReceived. After you append your event handler, then you need to call BeginOutputReadLine

using (AutoResetEvent outputWaitHandle = new AutoResetEvent(false))
using (AutoResetEvent errorWaitHandle = new AutoResetEvent(false))
using (Process process = new Process())
process.StartInfo.FileName = filename;
process.StartInfo.Arguments = arguments;
process.StartInfo.UseShellExecute = false;
process.StartInfo.RedirectStandardOutput = true;
process.StartInfo.RedirectStandardError = true;
StringBuilder output = new StringBuilder();
StringBuilder error = new StringBuilder();

process.OutputDataReceived += (sender, e) => {
if (e.Data == null)
process.ErrorDataReceived += (sender, e) =>
if (e.Data == null)
if (process.WaitForExit(timeout) &&
outputWaitHandle.WaitOne(timeout) &&
// Your process finished and check process.ExitCode now.
// Your process timed out.

This pattern is also very good at setting up a non-infinite wait time for your child process. Many other solution patterns for managing child processes assume an infinite wait, and that is often not a good choice for many of these advanced needs.

Converting a text string to a Brushes Color object in C#

We want to dynamically go from a list of Colors (ie, Red, Yellow, White) to the Brush object types shown in my previous article: Adding Text to Images with C# .Net Bitmap objects - We'll show a few solutions for mapping strings to Brush Color objects.

Try this one first. Simply map your string to a Color using the FromName function like this:

Color yellowColor = Color.FromName("Yellow");

Alternatively, you can use a ColorConverter like this:

TypeConverter typeConverter1 = TypeDescriptor.GetConverter(typeof(Color));
TypeConverter typeConverter2 = new ColorConverter();
Color yellowColor2 = (Color)tc.ConvertFromString("Yellow");

Lastly, you can use Reflection on Color or Brush like this:

Color yellowColor3 = (Color)typeof(Color).GetProperty("Yellow").GetValue(null, null);

Adding Text to Images with C# .Net Bitmap objects

This article will show you some examples of how to add text to images with C# .Net Bitmap objects. This works for jpg, png, bitmap, and other image format types.

Procedure Overview:

  1. Create a Bitmap object with your source image.
  2. Create a RectangleF object around your source image.
  3. Create a Graphics object using your source Bitmap object
  4. Set several configuration values on your Graphics object that make the text look better in most cases.
  5. Draw your text string to the rectangle with all of the specified settings.
  6. Flush the changes and save your final output.

Here's some example code that implements the above procedure:

// Load the original image. Can be jpg, png, bmp, etc...
Bitmap bmp = new Bitmap("myImage.jpg");
// Create a rectangle for the entire bitmap
RectangleF rectf = new RectangleF(0, 0, bmp.Width, bmp.Height);
// Create graphic object that will draw onto the bitmap
Graphics g = Graphics.FromImage(bmp);
// ------------------------------------------
// Ensure the best possible quality rendering
// ------------------------------------------
// The smoothing mode specifies whether lines, curves, and the edges of filled areas use smoothing (also called antialiasing). One exception is that path gradient brushes do not obey the smoothing mode. Areas filled using a PathGradientBrush are rendered the same way (aliased) regardless of the SmoothingMode property.
g.SmoothingMode = SmoothingMode.AntiAlias;
// The interpolation mode determines how intermediate values between two endpoints are calculated.
g.InterpolationMode = InterpolationMode.HighQualityBicubic;
// Use this property to specify either higher quality, slower rendering, or lower quality, faster rendering of the contents of this Graphics object.
g.PixelOffsetMode = PixelOffsetMode.HighQuality;
// This one is important
g.TextRenderingHint = TextRenderingHint.AntiAliasGridFit;
// Create string formatting options (used for alignment)
StringFormat format = new StringFormat()
    Alignment = StringAlignment.Center,
    LineAlignment = StringAlignment.Center
// Draw the text onto the image
g.DrawString("Visit", new Font("Tahoma",8), Brushes.Black, rectf, format);
// Flush all graphics changes to the bitmap
// Now save or use the bitmap
image.Image = bmp;

The following are common items you may want to customize: Fonts, Size, Color, Text Position, etc...

If you want to change your font type or font size, edit the values you set in this part of the code:

new Font("Tahoma",14)

If you want the text to be Yellow, change the 




If you want the text to be in the bottom right corner, change the Alignment values in the StringFormat object.

StringFormat format = new StringFormat()
Alignment = StringAlignment.Far,
LineAlignment = StringAlignment.Far

Finally, if you want to change the Text drawn on to the image, change the first argument passed to g.DrawString from Visit to whatever you'd like it to say.

Tesseract 4.0 C# .Net Wrapper Released!

This article is about the Tesseract 4.0 C# .Net Wrapper that is only a few days old as of April 2017.

You are probably familiar with the Tesseract 3.04 C# .Net Wrapper found here:

That is already available as a Nuget package and has many downloads.

Just about a week ago, an Alpha release of the Tesseract 4.0 C# .Net wrapper was published here:

This is an x64 only .Net assembly. 

Find the Tesseract 4.0 language packs here:

When I load English only language pack, it uses a reasonable 180MB of RAM. I tried to load "all languages", and it was using over 8GB of RAM. 

This build is incredibly slow for debug mode. It runs 5-8X slower in debug mode than release mode, so watch out for that.

Amazingly, the .Net wrapper API works exactly the same as the Tesseract C# .Net 3.0 wrapper! (When you read about how the engine changed a huge amount and using LTSM networks, this will be more amazing to you.)

A very simple usage example works like this:

var tessEngine = new TesseractEngine(tessdataPath, "eng");
using (Page page = tessEngine .Process(myImage))
    string resultText = page.GetText();

Be sure to drop these two files in your \bin\debug or \bin\release folder at a x64 sub-folder like this::


When the Tesseract.dll 4.0 assembly loads, it needs to find those DLLs else it will throw an exception in your application.

There is a very nice Accuracy and Performance overview report of 3.04 versus 4.0 here:

I agree with it's findings generally, but my own personal tests are not nearly as "improved" versus 3.04. I have a regression test that contains about 2200 pages, and I'm observing plenty of slower and less precise OCR results with Tesseract 4.0. It is certainly not all "better and faster" as of April 2017. Since this is an extremely new Alpha release, I have high hopes that it will improve over time.

Make a Slack WebHook plugin with C# .Net, Nancy, and Ngrok.

This blog article will walk you through making a C# webhook plugin for Slack. We'll be using Nancy to setup a small web service, and ngrok to expose our service publicly so Slack can call it.

First, make a new C# console application with Visual Studio, and install a few nuget packages. The interesting packages are Nancy, Nancy.Hosting.Self, and Slack.Webhooks.

Next, we need to create a NancyHost and start it up. You'll want your console application's main to look roughly like this:

        static void Main()
            JsConfig.EmitLowercaseUnderscoreNames = true;
            JsConfig.IncludeNullValues = false;
            JsConfig.PropertyConvention = JsonPropertyConvention.Lenient;
            using (var host = new NancyHost(new Uri("http://localhost:1234")))

When our application runs, it launches a service that listens on localhost:1234 for requests.

Of course, you'll need some using statements like this:

using Nancy;
using Nancy.Hosting.Self;
using Nancy.ModelBinding;
using Newtonsoft.Json;
using ServiceStack.Text;
using Slack.Webhooks;

Since our application will be listening on localhost:1234, we need to add request handlers. For our slack webhook plugin examlpe, we just need to handle a post. We'll create a WebhookModule class that inherrits from NancyModule, and has a Post handler like this code:

public class WebhookModule : NancyModule
public WebhookModule()
Post["/"] = _ =>
var model = this.Bind<HookMessage>();
var message = string.Empty;
SlackAttachment attachment = null;
message = string.Format("@{0} Hello", model.UserName);
if (!string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(message))
SlackMessage sm = new SlackMessage { Text = message, Username = "MyChat.Bot.Greeting", IconEmoji = Emoji.Ghost };
if(attachment != null)
sm.Attachments = new List<SlackAttachment>();
return sm;
return null;

When Post is received, this will receive a HookMessage and respond with a "Hello User" message. That response will be received by Slack and should output the "Hello User" message to your slack chat channel.

Here are a few other classes you'll need that define the HookMessage and some other Nancy boiler plate configuration:

    public class HookMessage
        public string Token { get; set; }
        public string TeamId { get; set; }
        public string ChannelId { get; set; }
        public string ChannelName { get; set; }
        public string UserId { get; set; }
        public string UserName { get; set; }
        public string Text { get; set; }
        public string TriggerWord { get; set; }
    public class TitleCaseFieldNameConverter : IFieldNameConverter
        public string Convert(string fieldName)
            return fieldName.ToTitleCase();
    public class Bootstrapper : DefaultNancyBootstrapper
        protected override void ApplicationStartup(Nancy.TinyIoc.TinyIoCContainer container, Nancy.Bootstrapper.IPipelines pipelines)
            container.Register<IFieldNameConverter, TitleCaseFieldNameConverter>();
            base.ApplicationStartup(container, pipelines);

At this point, you should be able to run your C# console application and be listening for Post requests on localhost:1234. Next, follow my ngrok block article to setup ngrok to expose your localhost:1234 service to a public address:

When your ngrok is ready to run, you can make your service publicly available by starting the ngrok service like this:

ngrok.exe http 1234

Lastly, you'll need to go in to your Slack configuration, and setup an Outgoing Webhook. Look in the "Browse Apps" -> "Custom Integrations" -> "Outgoing WebHooks" section. You will probably discover it more tricky to find where it was than to actually configure it.

You need to configure which channels you want your webhook to interact with, set the ngrok address that your service is serving on, and provide a token that Slack will send. You should update your C# console application to check the token value, but that's not entirely necessary for this system to work.

Here's an example of how I have an Outgoing WebHook configured in Slack:

That's everything! Give your Slack Bot a try.